Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second. Electric power is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries.
classification of power:
There are three types of power is there,
1. Real power
2. Reactive power
The relationship between real power, reactive power and apparent power can be expressed by representing the quantities as vectors. Real power is represented as a horizontal vector and reactive power is represented as a vertical vector
Alternative words used for Real Power (Actual Power, True Power, Watt-full Power, Useful Power, Real Power, and Active Power)
In a DC Circuit, power supply to the DC load is simply the product of Voltage across the load and Current flowing through it .
P = V I. because in DC Circuits, there is no concept of phase angle between current and voltage. In other words, there is no Power factor in DC Circuits.
But the situation is Sinusoidal or AC Circuits is more complex because of phase difference between Current and Voltage. Therefore average value of power (Real Power) is P = VI Cosθ is in fact supplied to the load.
In AC circuits, When circuit is pure resistive, then the same formula used for power as used in DC as P = V I.
Also known as (Use-less Power, Watt less Power)
The powers that continuously bounce back and forth between source and load is known as reactive Power (Q)
Power merely absorbed and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to as reactive power
The unit of Active or Real power is Watt where 1W = 1V x 1 A.
Reactive power represent that the energy is first stored and then released in the form of magnetic field or electrostatic field in case of inductor and capacitor respectively.
Reactive power is given by Q = V I Sinθ which can be positive (+ve) for inductive, negative (-Ve) for capacitive load.
The unit of reactive power is Volt-Ampere reactive. I.e. VAR
In more simple words, in Inductor or Capacitor, how much magnetic or electric field made by 1A x 1V is called the unit of reactive power.
Apparent Power: (S)
The product of voltage and current if and only if the phase angle differences between current and voltage are ignored.
Total power in an AC circuit, both dissipated and absorbed/returned is referred to as apparent power
The combination of reactive power and true power is called apparent power
In an AC circuit, the product of the r.m.s voltage and the r.m.s current is called apparent power.
It is the product of Voltage and Current without phase angle
The unit of Apparent power (S) VA i.e. 1VA = 1V x 1A.
When the circuit is pure resistive, then apparent power is equal to real or true power, but in inductive or capacitive circuit, (when Reactance’s exist) then apparent power is greater than real or true power.